A new report published by the Australian Government - Climate Change Risks to Australia's Coasts povides a risk assessment of climate change and rising sea level to Austrlian coastal communities. The report shows between 157,000 to 247,600 existing residential buildings will be at risk from sea inundation by 2100, under a sea-level rise scenario of 1.1 metres.
The report notes that "85 per cent of the population now live in the coastal region and it is of immense economic, social and environmental importance to the nation. All Australian state capital cities are located within the coastal zone, it is the conduit for our exports and imports, and much of the nation's commercial activities occur in coastal areas. Large numbers of Australians enjoy the recreational benefi ts the coast provides and it is home to a vast array of treasured environmental values that underpin essential ecosystem services."
The report used recent research, as presented at the Copenhagen climate congress in March 2009, of projected sea-level rise from 75 centimetres to 190 centimetres relative to 1990, with 110-120 centimetres the mid-range of the projection. Based on this research 1.1 metres was selected as a plausible value for sea-level rise for the risk
assessment in the report to 2100. It was noted that sea level is likely to continue to rise beyond 2100 and that sea-level rise projections will change as new research clarifies areas of uncertainty.
The occurence and severity of extreme weather events will increase "events that now happen every 10 years would happen about every 10 days in 2100. The current 1-in-100 year event could occur several times a year." says the report.
In launching the report Climate Change Minister Senator Penny Wong said "The science tells us our climate is changing faster than first projected and the impacts are likely to be more severe as sea-level rises and extreme storms and floods become more frequent. These changes are already happening and we cannot afford to ignore the findings of this report."
Port facilities around Australia will be effected, as will Sydney and Brisbane airports. At least 11 power plants/substations are located within 500m of the coastline. The report details that there is a large number of facilities within 200 metres and 500 metres of the coastline, potentially at risk under a changing climate. This includes a large number of hospitals, police, fire and ambulance stations very close to the coast. In an extreme weather event the functionality of these services may be compromised, resulting in significantly greater impacts than might otherwise occur and could result in deaths.
"Sea-level rise, more intense cyclones and ocean acidification will potentially increase the capital and operating costs of ports quite significantly by mid century,'' Senator Wong said. "A number of airports are also located in low-lying areas in the coastal zone, and are at risk of inundation in the coming century.''
The Torres Strait Islands, containing 17 Island communities with a total population of around 8,700 people, was assessed as extremely vulnerable to sea level rise. The report noted the IPCC finding that "Indigenous communities in the tropical north, home to about 87,000 Indigenous people, are also considered to be very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Such communities often live in isolated areas that are poorly resourced, and tend to have greater health issues and lower incomes than other communities."
"Every day we delay action on climate change, we increase the cost," Senator Wong said
"This report shows the need to reduce the carbon pollution that is causing climate change, which is why we are determined to pass the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme. It also shows that Australia must plan to adapt to the climate change we can't avoid."
The Government is in negotiations with the Liberal and National Parties to pass legislation for its Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) to be reintroduced into the Senate in the coming week. This legislation will create a 'carbon market', with many free credits issued initially to major companies in carbon emission intensive industries, particularly coal and power industries.
Greens Deputy Leader Christine Milne commented "Despite these dire warnings we have a government intent on increasing the burning and export of coal and the logging and burning of our native forests for decades to come, knowing full well that this will result in the climate change impacts the government says it is concerned about."
"The absurdity of the situation is that the government's own emissions trading legislation to be debated in the Senate in the coming fortnight will do nothing to stop the outcomes outlined in today's report."
"The government should take the report on notice and redesign its emissions trading legislation to adopt strong targets to tackle climate change and end billions of dollars of handouts to the big polluters,"
Senator Milne said.
The release of the report was accompanied by the announcement by Senator Wong of the creation of a seven-member Coasts and Climate Change Council to be chaired by Professor Tim Flannery. Other members include: Ms Sam Mostyn - expert in sustainability and risk management; Mr Ron Clarke - Mayor of Gold Coast; Ms Paddi Creevey - Mayor of Mandurah; Professor Barbara Norman - Foundation Chair, Professor of Urban Planning, at University of Canberra; Professor Bruce Thom - President, Australian Coastal Society; and Geoff Lake - President, Australian Local Government Association.
The Council has been set the task of engaging with the community and stakeholders and advising the Government in the lead up to a Coastal Climate Change Forum, to be held in early 2010. This Forum will bring together all levels of government to develop a strategy for coastal adaptation.
The report was a first pass national assessment - one of the key actions identified in the National Climate Change Adaptation Framework endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2007.
- Department of Climate Change, Nov 14, 2009. Climate Change Risks to Australia's Coasts
- Peny Wong Media Release Nov 14, 2009
- Senator Christine Milne Media Release, Nov 14, 2009 Sea level rise report highlights need for redesign of CPRS